X-Road is the backbone of e-Estonia. It’s the invisible yet crucial environment that allows the nation’s various e-services databases, both in the public and private sector, to link up and operate in harmony.
One of the key elements of e-Estonia is that its databases are decentralized, which means:
- There’s no single owner or controller
- Every government agency or business can choose the product that’s right for them
- Services can be added one at a time, as they’re ready
X-Road is the all-important connection between these databases, the tool that allows them to work together for maximum impact. All of the Estonian e-solutions that use multiple databases use X-Road. All outgoing data from the X-Road is digitally signed and encrypted. All incoming data is authenticated and logged.
Originally X-Road was a system used for making queries to the different databases. Now it has developed into a tool that can also write to multiple databases, transmit large data sets and perform searches across several databases.
X-Road was designed with growth in mind, so can be scaled up as new e-services, with their various platforms, come online.
- In 2013 over 287 million queries were done over X-road.
- Over 170 databases offer their services over X-Road in Estonia.
- Over 2,000 services are used over X-Road in Estonia.
- Over 900 organisations use X-Road daily in Estonia.
- More than 50% of the inhabitants of Estonia use X-Road through the information portal eesti.ee.
X-Road enables a wide range of otherwise complex services to be offered quickly and conveniently:
- Presenting a registration of residence electronically;
- Checking one’s personal data (address registration, exam results, health insurance, etc.) from the national databases;
- Declare taxes electronically;
- Check the validity of your driving license and vehicles registered to your name;
- A newborn child receiving health insurance automatically.
Learn more details and regulations regarding the X-Road here.