Strategic outline for IT development, ratified by parliament 4 years later.
Estonians using internet voting
number of e-Residents
digital state services
Estonian ICT sector
our highest rankings
e-Estonia Briefing Centre
This is the story of the world's most advanced digital society
We trace the most important events that led us here. It is not a path that can be copied, but the challenges we faced and the opportunities we found can inspire others to discover their own.
For us, e-Estonia has led to creating a society with more transparency, trust and efficiency. We have learned that developing e-solutions is not merely about adding something (a digital layer) but changing everything.
to build a fully functioning country from scratch, while knowing we cannot afford the bureaucracy of a developed democracy
- 1994 The first draft of "Principles of Estonian Information Policy"1994The first draft of "Principles of Estonian Information Policy"
- 1996 launch of the tiger leap initiative1996launch of the tiger leap initiative1996launch of the tiger leap initiative
Country-wide IT infrastructure development initiative.
catching up to the West by updating local IT infrastructure and establishing computer skills as a priority in schools.
90% of the population uses the Internet regularly; #1 in the Digital Development Index.
- 1996 first e-banking service1996first e-banking service1996first e-banking service
Online banking solutions developed by private banks.
low population density means high cost for a nationwide network of bank o-ices.
development of high-quality e-banking services encouraged people to get online, to embrace government e-solutions and to later use e-ID.
- 2000 e-cabinet meeting2000e-cabinet meeting2000e-cabinet meeting
Database and scheduler for streamlining governmental decision-making processes.
reducing government bureaucracy, making e-solutions part of decision-making.
the average length of cabinet meetings of the Estonian government has been cut from 4-5 hours to as little as 30 minutes.
- 2000 e-tax board2000e-tax board
- 2000 m-parking2000m-parking2000m-parking
A system that enables drivers to pay for city parking via mobile phone.
managing growing traffic in densely populated urban areas, creating a modern and low-cost parking infrastructure.
95% of parking fees are paid via mobile phones, Estonia’s m-parking solution has been adopted in countries around the world.
- 2001 x-road2001x-road2001x-road
Distributed data exchange layer for registers and information systems.
limited resources to create a national integration platform, ballooning data exchange costs, public data leaks from existing unsecure databases.
X-Road has become the backbone of e-Estonia, allowing the nation’s public and private sector information systems to link up and operate in harmony. 99% of public services are accessible online 24/7.
- 2002 e-id and digital signature2002e-id and digital signature
- 2005 i-voting2005i-voting
- 2007 cyber security2007cyber security2007cyber security
Concerted effort to enhance IT security.
In April 2007, Estonia was hit by the largest organised cyber-attack against a single country. International cooperation was needed to contain this new threat.
Estonia has become one of the leading nations in cyber security. Both the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence and the EU IT Agency are situated here in Tallinn.
- 2008 blockchain technology2008blockchain technology2008blockchain technology
Scalable blockchain technology KSI is developed by Estonian cryptographers.
Following the cyber-attacks in 2007, Estonia needed to mitigate threats of insider data manipulation in its registries.
Estonia has become a pioneer of blockchain technology. Several government registries are backed by the KSI Blockchain.
- 2008 e-health2008e-health2008e-health
A nationwide system integrating data from Estonia’s healthcare providers.
improving the quality and efficiency of health care provided under public health insurance.
the electronic health record has created a comprehensive pro le of each patient, reducing bureaucracy and giving access to time-critical information in emergency situations.
- 2010 e-prescription2010e-prescription
- 2013 public services green paper2013public services green paper2013public services green paper
Mapping challenges and solutions for developing state e-services
addressing the e-state’s current shortcomings to assure its sustainability and future development.
a better understanding of the public’s needs and the clear definition of goals and principles for the development of e-services.
- 2014 road administration’s e-portal2014road administration’s e-portal
- 2014 e-residency2014e-residency2014e-residency
A borderless digital society for any global citizen to join.
finding new and innovative ways to attract international business and talent to Estonia.
e-residency is the first digital nation for global citizens. The number of e-residents and their businesses is steadily increasing.
- 2015 world's first data embassy2015world's first data embassy2015world's first data embassy
Estonia green-lights plan to create the first data embassy outside its borders
assuring the digital continuity of Estonia and our statehood in worst-case scenarios like critical system failures or external threats
Estonia is the first country in the cloud, our critical databases and services are backed up in a high-security data centre in Luxembourg
- 2017 NIIS X-road consortium2017NIIS X-road consortium2017NIIS X-road consortium
Nordic Institute for Interoperability Solutions (NIIS) ensures the development and strategic management of X-Road and other e-governance solutions
ensuring the interoperability of e-governance solutions and platforms both nationally and internationally
founded by Estonia and Finland NIIS is a pioneer of cross-border e-governance solutions, intent on providing better content and services for the public
- 2018 seamless services roadmap2018seamless services roadmap2018seamless services roadmap
Proactive government services that react to life events requiring minimal bureaucracy
reducing bureaucracy and human resources to manage essential routine state services
seamless services provide a more natural relationship with the state; the first seamless service goes live in 2018
- 2019 Government AI strategy2019Government AI strategy2019Government AI strategy
Outlining the current and future usages of AI in government and private services
creating the legal and strategic framework for accelerating AI development and making Estonia a trailblazer in the field
a detailed strategic plan for promoting implementation of AI solutions in public and private sector
- 2020 proactive child care2020proactive child care2020proactive child care
when a child is born, a population entry activates all of the following services, and the family gets all the benefits they are entitled to automatically
how to use the information that the state already has to create proactive services and lessen bureaucracy
parents of a newborn no longer need to apply for benefits
- 2020 remote verification for notaries2020remote verification for notaries2020remote verification for notaries
remote authentication enables the conduct of notarial acts using Veriff’s online identity verification platform
buying and selling real-estate while not being physically in the same space, during the pandemic or beyond
there are now only two things that need to be done physically in Estonia – getting married and divorced
- 2021 world's first autonomous hydrogen vehicle2021world's first autonomous hydrogen vehicle2021world's first autonomous hydrogen vehicle
the hydrogen shuttle Liisu, developed by Auve Tech and researches from University of Tartu, is aimed at enhancing last-mile transportation
to bring together autonomous driving and remote control with hydrogen fuel
driverless hydrogen vehicle Liisu is an environmentally friendly alternative to personal cars