Estonia is a pioneering nation in the field of digital healthcare, having fully integrated e-Health solutions into its medical infrastructure. The Estonian National Health Information System (HIS), operational since 2008, exemplifies the country’s commitment to innovative healthcare technologies. Through this system, healthcare providers across the nation are interconnected, and patients’ health data is securely stored in a centralized database. The system is vast, containing over 40 million documents—including summaries of visits or treatments, discharges, referrals, diagnostic study reports, and medical procedures. This accumulation of data provides a comprehensive resource for healthcare professionals and patients alike.

In addition to general health data, the Estonian Genome Center has collected genome data for over 200,000 individuals. This rich genomic repository is crucial for the advancement of personalized medicine in Estonia. By combining genome data with the health information stored in HIS, healthcare professionals can tailor specific diagnoses and treatments to individual genetic profiles. This approach not only enhances the effectiveness of medical interventions but also underscores the precision medicine capabilities enabled by e-Health technologies.

Privacy and data ownership are central tenets of Estonian e-governance and are deeply ingrained in the e-Health system. According to these principles, health data fundamentally belongs to the individual concerned. All healthcare providers are obligated to contribute data to the HIS, but access to this information is strictly controlled. Only licensed medical professionals can access the system, and patients have the right to view their own health records stored in the central database. Moreover, patients have the option to restrict access to their data (opt-out), and they can monitor who has viewed their information.

The accessibility of health data and e-services for patients is further facilitated through the patient portal This portal serves as a secure and convenient point of access where patients can review their health information, manage appointments, and communicate with healthcare providers. The implementation of KSI Blockchain technology within the HIS enhances security by ensuring data integrity and protecting against internal threats. This advanced technology is crucial for maintaining trust in the system’s security, particularly in safeguarding sensitive health information.

Every person in Estonia who has visited a doctor has an e-Health record. These records are identified and secured using the electronic ID-card system, which ensures that health information is kept secure yet accessible to authorized individuals. This dual focus on accessibility and security exemplifies the balance that Estonia has achieved in its e-Health system.

Estonia’s e-Health initiative not only provides a blueprint for the digital transformation of healthcare systems worldwide but also demonstrates the potential for technology to improve healthcare outcomes. The integration of e-solutions in healthcare is a testament to the efficiencies and enhancements that technology can bring to medical practices and patient care. As Estonia continues to develop and refine its e-Health strategies, it remains at the forefront of the digital healthcare revolution, offering valuable insights and models for other nations to consider in their own healthcare system advancements. This commitment to innovation and patient-centered care is what sets Estonia’s e-Health ecosystem apart as a leader in the global healthcare industry.



e-Health Record

The Electronic Health Record (e-Health Record) is a nationwide system that integrates data from Estonia’s different healthcare providers to create a common record that every patient can access online. Each person in Estonia who has visited a doctor has his/her own online e-Health story that can be tracked.

Functioning very much like a centralized, national database, the e-Health Record actually retrieves data as necessary from various providers, who may be using different systems, and presents it in a standard format via the e-Patient portal. A result is a  powerful tool for doctors that allows them to access a patient’s records easily from a single electronic file. Doctors can read test results as they are entered, including image files such as X-rays even from remote hospitals. Patients have access to their own and to their underaged children`s records, and the records of persons who have given authorisation to them for seeing their medical data. By logging into the health portal (ID-card/m-ID), they can review past visits to the doctor, current prescriptions, and receive general health advice.

KSI Blockchain technology is used to ensure the integrity of retrieved electronic medical records as well as system access logs.

Visit the Estonian e-Health Records here.


patients have a countrywide digital record


queries by patients every month


Bertelsmann Foundation 2019 digital health index

Developers of e-Health Records:


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We host impactful events both in our centre and online for government institutions, companies, and media. You’ll get an overview of e-Estonia’s best practices and build links to leading IT-service providers and state experts to support your digitalisation plans.

Questions? Have a chat with us.

Call us: +372 6273157 (business hours only)

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The Briefing Centre is conveniently located just 2 minutes drive from the airport and 10 to 15 minutes drive from the city centre.

You will find us on a ground floor of Valukoja 8, central entrance behind the statue of Mr Ernst Julius Öpik. Photo of the central entrance.

Valukoja 8
11415 Tallinn, Estonia